Monday, December 9, 2019

Future of Stakeholder Management Theory †

Question: Discuss about the Future of Stakeholder Management Theory. Answer: Introduction Effective stakeholder relationship management fosters positive relationship with the stakeholders through appropriately managing their agreed objectives and expectations (Schnackenberg and Tomlinson 2016). The corporate reputation of Volkswagen has damaged due to its car emission scandal in USA (BBC News 2015). The organization needs to regain and rebuild its relationship with the stakeholders for recapturing the market. The study will develop strategies for managing relationship with diverse stakeholder groups for addressing the scandal issue. The study will integrate the organizational objectives with stakeholder plan. Furthermore, the study will also outline the way for engaging and building mutually beneficial relationship with the stakeholders for scandal issue. Apart from that, the study will identify and respond to the problems and opportunities regarding the issues through environmental scanning and monitoring. A key message and massage matrix would also be framed for Volkswa gen in this study for overcoming the emission scandal issue. Lastly, the study will select appropriate channels for engaging in long term relationship with relevant stakeholders. Maintaining media relation is highly important for managing the public relation of an organization with the public as well as other stakeholders. According to Agudo?Valiente, Garcs?Ayerbe and Salvador?Figueras (2015), proper media relation spread positive image of an organization in the market. Therefore, Volkswagen should proactively and transparently communicate with the media rather than hiding their scandals. Moreover, the organization should hire a spokespersonfor answering detailed inquiries of the media. Furthermore, the organization should quickly apologize to the media for their unethical carbon emission of the cars. On the other hand, Verbeke and Tung (2013) opined that showing concern for the public is the best way of managing relationship with the public and maintain corporate image. Therefore, Volkswagen should demonstrate core concern for the public and customers and promise to come up with better car model. It will manage effective media relationship of the organizatio n after their scandal. Strategies to Manage Relationship with Employees Managing employee relation is the most important stakeholder relationship management activity for an organization, as they are the only responsible for building organizational success through using their talent. Bridoux and Stoelhorst (2014) pointed out that proper employee relationship management assists an organization towards getting high level of employee dedication for achieving organizational success. Volkswagen should immediate understand the understanding of the employees regarding the emission scandal. In this way, the management of the organization should compensate the employees for their harassment faced in the investigation. On the other hand, Steyn and Niemann (2014) opined that the employees should be provided with adequate value for managing positive relationship with them. Moreover, the Volkswagen should allow the employees in organization decision making process for further actions to be taken in mitigating the impact of emission scandal. It will be keep the employe es engaged in the organization having positive relationship with the management. Community relationship is extremely significant for an organization in building corporate image in the society. Tantalo and Priem (2016) pointed out that organizations need to understand the perspective and expectation of community members from them for properly managing relationship with community. Moreover, Volkswagen should maintain transparency with the community people in regards to their business activities after their scandal has occured. It can also be important for the organization to provide donations for community development. It will mitigate the issues of community, which will help in building effective community relationship. On the other hand, Olkkonen and Luoma-aho (2014) opined that strong social message and event sponsorship is extremely important for building strong relationship with community people. Likewise, Volkswagen should also spread strong social message for overcoming the scandal and organization charity event for meeting the core needs of the community. I t will manage community relationship of Volkswagen even after their emission scandal. Henisz, Dorobantu and Nartey (2014) stated that organizations should continuously perform customer survey for assessing the needs and issues of the customers. It helps the organizations towards immediately resolving the customer issues before it becomes customer dissatisfaction. In this way, Volkswagen should use customer relationship management software for maintain relationship with the customers. Such software will help the organization in understanding the perspective, hassles and embarrassment of the customers, which they faced in emission scandal of the cars. Therefore, such software would help Volkswagen in accordingly plan and compensate the customers for their harassment for marinating effective customer relationship. On the other hand, Waligo, Clarke and Hawkins (2014) allowing customers in organizational decision making process also enhance customers worth, which facilitates in building effective customer relationship. Volkswagen should use social media for interacting wit h the customers and asking for any suggestions towards improving business and resolving the emission scandal. It will help the organization is maintaining effective relationship with the customers. Strategies to Manage Relationship with Investors ORiordan and Fairbrass (2014) pointed out that organizations can effectively manage their relationship with their investors through communicating transparently with them. Volkswagen should first apologize to the investors for their emission scandal and huge business loss. Apart from that, the organization should also maintain transparency in the communication with the investors regarding their future business plan. On the other hand, Ayuso et al. (2014) pointed out that investor relationship can also be maintained through proper assurance of profit potentiality to the investors. Likewise, Volkswagen requires perfect financial projection showing profit potentiality to the investors, which would regain the investors confidence and maintain effective relationship with them. According to Borgers et al. (2013), organization can maintain effective relationship with Government through timely payment of taxes and adhering to all legal contracts. In case of Volkswagen, the organization should first apologize to the government for their emission scandal. Furthermore, the organization should submit all quarterly reports, stories, trial metrics and future plan on regular basis to the government for regaining the trust of Government and maintain effective relationship with them. The objective Volkswagen is to regain and rebuild its corporate image in the market after its emission scandal. Strategies for media and community management would help the organization in achieving this business objective (Zerfass and Schramm 2014). Moreover, proper explanation and promise for business improvement in to the media and community would spread strong social message of the organization. It would help in rebuilding and regaining the corporate image in the market. Apart from that, the objective of the organization is also to regain the customer trust for enhancing sales of cars and market capitalization. In such situation, proper employee relation will help in dedication level of the employees and manufacture cars with new models for regaining the trust level of the employees. The business objective of the organization is also to enhance the stock price of the organization immediately. Therefore, maintenance of investor relationship will facilitate Volkswagen in enhancing the stock price through regaining the trust of the investors. The organization is highly inclined towards enhancing its market capitalization through increased car sales (Doh and Quigley 2014). In such extent, the proper customer relationship management will regain the trust of the customers and encourage them towards purchasing their cars. It will ultimately enhance the sales volume and market capitalization of the organization. The business objective of Volkswagen includes mitigation of legal complications for regaining competition position in the market. In such situation, maintaining government relationship will help the organization in overcoming all the legal complications through meeting all the government contracts. Engagement and Mutually Beneficial Relationship with Stakeholders As per Pitsis et al. (2014), Volkswagen can best overcome the issues of their car emission scandal through engaging and building mutually beneficial relationship with the stakeholder groups. While considering the mutually beneficial relationship with the media groups, it can be said that the organization should engage an authoritative spokesperson for answering all the questions of the Medias. In this way, the media channels will get the scope of publishing new interesting news in their channels and the organization will get the scope of clarifying their perspective on their scandal for resolving the issues. On the other hand, the organization can allow the employees in organizational decision making process for getting ideas of resolving emission scandals. It will enhance the value of the employees in the organization and new and effective ideas for resolving emission scandals. Fair return on investment to the investors will be beneficial for the investors on their investment (Ortiz ?de?Mandojana and Bansal 2016). It will also help the organization in gaining huge investment from the investors towards enhancing financial sustainability. In case of community, the organization can provide donations for community development for making mutually benefit with the community people. Such donations will on the one hand, will develop the community, whereas, on the other hand, will rebuild corporate image of the organization in the society. The organization can compensate the harassment and hassles of the customers for their cars having high emission system. Moreover, the organization can offer attractive discounts and offers to the customers for their further car models. It can reduce the cost of car purchase of the customers and also help organizations in enhancing their car sales volume. Identification and Respond to Problems and Opportunities Volkswagen can effectively identify the issues and opportunities related to the scandals through PEST and SWOT environment scanning. In this way, the organization can also better resolve the issues through utilizing their opportunities towards mitigating issues. PEST Environment Scanning Problems and Opportunities Response to Problems and Opportunities POLITICAL FACTOR Lose of political support for emission scandals Many trade restrictions has also imposed on Volkswagen Strict environmental law of USA has mostly created such emission scandals of the organization Political stability of USA can be favorable for quickly resolving the issues Volkswagen should immediately apologize to the government for gaining the sympathy of Government The organization should meet all the imposed government contracts for gaining government trust With the opportunity of government stability, the organization can immediately resolve their scandal issues through meeting all the fines imposed on them ECONOMIC FACTOR Developed economic condition of USA can lead to quick return on investment for resolving the issues The scandal issues has led to huge economic loss of the customers The organization should immediately compensate the damages of the stakeholders for re-establishing corporate image in economically developed market SOCIAL FACTOR Growing inclination of people towards environment friendly cars can be issues for Volkswagen towards resolving issues Enhanced disposable income of the people can be opportunity for the organization The organization should immediately re-launch environment friendly cars, which have high potentiality of sales to the economically sound customers. TECHNOLOGICAL FACTOR Technological advancement of USA can be an opportunity for resolving emission scandals immediately With advancement technological advancement, the organization can immediately manufacturing environment friendly cars for resolving emission scandals Advanced digitalization can help Volkswagen in better interacting with stakeholders for resolving the issues Table 1: Identification and Response to Problems and Opportunities through PEST (Source: Hahn 2015) SWOT Environment Scanning Problems and Opportunities Response to Problems and Opportunities Strength Strong brand presence or loyalty Wide ranges of cars Presence in hybrid cars Excellent advertising and marketing Strong brand loyalty and wide range of cars can help Volkswagen in quickly regaining customer trust even after emission scandal The presence of hybrid cars can immediately resolve emission scandal Excellent advertising can help the organization in properly interacting with stakeholders for resolving emission scandal issue Weakness Fraud and controversy of emission scandal has damaged global brand image Effective media relation and customer relationship can help in quickly regaining the brand image Opportunities Regaining customer trust and maintaining long term relationship with stakeholders Continuous improvement on cars technology Long term stakeholder relationship and continuous improvement of car technology will ultimately mitigate scandal issue Threats Changing government rules and policies Increasing cost of renewable energy Alignment with changing government rule and regulations Optimum usage of renewable energy in hybrid cars with improved technology Table 2: Identification and Response to Problems and Opportunities through PEST (Source: Helmig, Spraul and Ingenhoff 2016) Key Message and Message Matrix Stakeholder Media, customers, investors, employees and Government Main Concern To have environment friendly rides with luxurious comfort Message 1 The cars of Volkswagen will have less car emission while driving The cars will be manufactured with improved emission free car technology Message 2 Purchasing Volkswagen cars will be a great step towards environmental concern The cars will emit 25% less carbon than previous cars and have premium looks and comfort Message 3 Purchase Volkswagen cars and make emission free rides Less emission will protect environment from carbon footprint Table 3: Message Matrix (Source: Created by Author) Channels to Engage in long-Term Relationship with Stakeholders According to Colleoni (2013), social media is an effective business communication channel, which helps in communicating communication message through online community. It is the quickest form of communication channels for communicating message to wide stakeholder groups. Therefore, Volkswagen should use social media channels for communicating their key message to the stakeholder groups. The organization can effectively get feedback of their communication message from their stakeholders in such social media channels. In this way, social media channels can be effectively used as communication channel for Volkswagen towards building long term relationship. Doh and Quigley (2014) pointed out that mass media is the best communication channel towards communicating with mass stakeholder groups. Moreover, organizations can best reach out to mass stakeholder groups in an effective way. Therefore, Volkswagen can reach out to mass stakeholder groups within shortest period. In this way, the organization can reach vast majority of general public and other stakeholders towards making long term relationship with them. Newspaper and magazines are the most common way of reaching out to important stakeholders and making long term relationship with them. Therefore, Volkswagen should use newspaper and magazines for communicating their key message after their scandal. The appealing manner of the communication content in the newspaper and magazines would make positive and long term relationship with the stakeholders. Corporate sponsorship is an effective communication tool towards to fostering positive public relation. Sponsoring any event in the community regarding any social issue can build the corporate image among the stakeholders (ORiordan and Fairbrass 2014). Therefore, Volkswagen can effectively use corporate sponsorship for communication with the community people and other stakeholders. In this way, enhanced interaction with the community people and other stakeholders through corporate sponsorship build long term relationship with the stakeholders. Conclusion While concluding the study, the car emission scandal of Volkswagen is forcing it towards developing effective strategies in rebuilding and regaining the trust of the stakeholders. The organization should apologize and answer sincerely to media for their scandal. The organization can also manage its employees and customers through compensating for their harassments and hassles of the cars having high carbon emission. Offering discounts to the customers would regain the loyalty level of the customers by providing extra benefits. Furthermore, the organization can offer donations for community development, which can build mutually beneficial relationship with the community development for community and enhanced corporate image for the organization. Volkswagen should come up with the key message like it will renovate its cars with luxurious comfort and less carbon emission. It should communicate and manage long term relationship with the stakeholders. Reference List Agudo?Valiente, J.M., Garcs?Ayerbe, C. and Salvador?Figueras, M., 2015. Corporate social performance and stakeholder dialogue management.Corporate Social Responsibility and Environmental Management,22(1), pp.13-31. Ayuso, S., Rodrguez, M.A., Garca-Castro, R. and Ario, M.A., 2014. Maximizing stakeholders interests: An empirical analysis of the stakeholder approach to corporate governance.Business society,53(3), pp.414-439. BBC News. 2015.Volkswagen: The scandal explained. [online] Available at: [Accessed 19 Nov. 2017]. Borgers, A., Derwall, J., Koedijk, K. and Ter Horst, J., 2013. Stakeholder relations and stock returns: On errors in investors' expectations and learning.Journal of Empirical Finance,22, pp.159-175. Bridoux, F. and Stoelhorst, J.W., 2014. Microfoundations for stakeholder theory: Managing stakeholders with heterogeneous motives.Strategic Management Journal,35(1), pp.107-125. Colleoni, E., 2013. CSR communication strategies for organizational legitimacy in social media.Corporate Communications: an international journal,18(2), pp.228-248. Doh, J.P. and Quigley, N.R., 2014. Responsible leadership and stakeholder management: Influence pathways and organizational outcomes.The Academy of Management Perspectives,28(3), pp.255-274. Hahn, T., 2015. Reciprocal stakeholder behavior: A motive-based approach to the implementation of normative stakeholder demands.Business Society,54(1), pp.9-51. Helmig, B., Spraul, K. and Ingenhoff, D., 2016. Under positive pressure: How stakeholder pressure affects corporate social responsibility implementation.Business Society,55(2), pp.151-187. Henisz, W.J., Dorobantu, S. and Nartey, L.J., 2014. Spinning gold: The financial returns to stakeholder engagement.Strategic Management Journal,35(12), pp.1727-1748. ORiordan, L. and Fairbrass, J., 2014. Managing CSR stakeholder engagement: A new conceptual framework.Journal of Business Ethics,125(1), pp.121-145. Olkkonen, L. and Luoma-aho, V., 2014. Public relations as expectation management?.Journal of Communication Management,18(3), pp.222-239. Ortiz?de?Mandojana, N. and Bansal, P., 2016. The long?term benefits of organizational resilience through sustainable business practices.Strategic Management Journal,37(8), pp.1615-1631. Pitsis, T.S., Sankaran, S., Gudergan, S. and Clegg, S.R., 2014. Governing projects under complexity: theory and practice in project management.International Journal of Project Management,32(8), pp.1285-1290. Schnackenberg, A.K. and Tomlinson, E.C., 2016. Organizational transparency: A new perspective on managing trust in organization-stakeholder relationships.Journal of Management,42(7), pp.1784-1810. Steyn, B. and Niemann, L., 2014. Strategic role of public relations in enterprise strategy, governance and sustainabilityA normative framework.Public Relations Review,40(2), pp.171-183. Tantalo, C. and Priem, R.L., 2016. Value creation through stakeholder synergy.Strategic Management Journal,37(2), pp.314-329. Verbeke, A. and Tung, V., 2013. The future of stakeholder management theory: A temporal perspective.Journal of Business Ethics,112(3), pp.529-543. Waligo, V.M., Clarke, J. and Hawkins, R., 2014. The leadershipstakeholder involvement capacitynexus in stakeholder management.Journal of Business Research,67(7), pp.1342-1352. Zerfass, A. and Schramm, D.M., 2014. Social Media Newsrooms in public relations: A conceptual framework and corporate practices in three countries.Public Relations Review,40(1), pp.79-91.

Monday, December 2, 2019

The Harmful Effects of ADHD Medication in Children free essay sample

The medications and treatments for children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) were researched to expose the risks of pharmaceuticals and their side effects on young children. The medical risks of medications commonly used to treat children with ADHD were examined using published research and findings from pediatricians, physicians, scientists, and other health care professionals, as well as alternative treatments for the disorder. The research showed that the ADHD pharmaceutical treatment plans have serious short and long term side effects on young children, with no evidence of long term efficacy. Whereas, alternative treatment plans pose no harmful physical side effects and are still effective. The Harmful Effects of ADHD Medication in Children Abigail first started exhibiting signs of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) in preschool. Her preschool teachers complained to her parents that during story time she disturbed the other children with her fidgeting. Her parents took her to a developmental pediatrician who, after many tests, diagnosed her with ADHD. We will write a custom essay sample on The Harmful Effects of ADHD Medication in Children or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page The pediatrician prescribed different medications that made her seriously ill and drastically altered her personality. After trying several different medications, her parents decided to abstain from pharmaceuticals as a means of treatment. The side effects of the medications that Abigail used as a treatment for her ADHD are not uncommon for many young children with the disorder. There are many drugs being used to treat ADHD that have short term side effects and long term health risks. Furthermore, the Multimodal Treatment Study (MTA) on ADHD showed that though there was no conclusive evidence of long term effectiveness of the ADHD medications, alternative treatments and behavior therapies are effective treatments for ADHD. Due to the harmful side effects and long term health risks of ADHD medication, as well as the findings of the MTA study, parents should reconsider the use of ADHD medication in the treatment plan for their children with ADHD. One cannot understand the medications or therapies used to treat ADHD without understanding the disorder first. ADHD is the single most common medical disorder diagnosed in school age children today. According to Efron, Hazell, and Anderson (2011), â€Å"the core symptoms are developmentally inappropriate impulsiveness, inattention and often hyperactivity† (p. 682). It is estimated that one in twenty children are diagnosed with the disorder (Pellow, Solomon, Bernard, 2011). There is much controversy over the pharmaceutical treatment of ADHD, as the disorder is not one that a child will simply outgrow. Thus, parents are becoming increasingly skeptical of the current medicinal treatment plans. One reason why parents should reconsider ADHD medication is their harmful side effects. Currently, there are three main types of medications that treat ADHD in children: Stimulants, antidepressants and antihypertensive medications. All three classes of drugs carry the risks of serious side effects. According to Ryan, Kitsiyannis, and Hughes (2011) â€Å"one of the most common stimulants prescribed by physicians is methylphenidate, with approximately 85%-90% of all prescriptions for this drug being written for ADHD† (p. 53). Though they have successfully treated symptoms of ADHD, they also have serious side effects. Common side effects of methylphenidates include nausea, vomiting, fever, headache and insomnia (2011). More concerning is the fact that the more serious side effects range from irregular heartbeat, hallucinations, depression, tics, seizures, slurred speech, weakness on one side of the body, and even addiction (2011). For an eight or nine year old child taking stimulant medication as an ADHD treatment, the side effects can be far more difficult to endure than the disorder itself. In acclimating to the drugs, children are expected to grin and bear it. However, one must question whether taking the medication and subjecting a young child to the risks of seizures or an irregular heartbeat is worth the risk. Is forcing a child to go weeks feeling nauseas, vomiting, unable to sleep or having blurred vision a healthy choice to make for one’s child? A parent would not encourage his or her child to eat brownies laced with marijuana as a means to calm or â€Å"mellow out† the child. Why then are drugs that have not only the same psychotropic side effects as marijuana, but more serious and dangerous side effects encouraged and prescribed? Pellow, Solomon, and Bernard (2011) stated in the Alternative Medicine Review that â€Å"as many as 20-30 percent of children either do not respond to this class of drug or are unable to tolerate them due to the wide range of adverse effects they may produce† (p.327). Therefore, 20-30 percent of all children on a stimulant regiment are unnecessarily subjected to serious health risks with no benefit to their disorder. Although Ryan, Kitsiyannis, and Hughes advocate the use of stimulant medication due to their short term efficacy, Barnett and Labellarte (2002) stated â€Å"the presence of psychosis and an unacceptable risk for stimulant abuse are the most compelling reasons to avoid stimulants† (p. 193). Antidepressants, like stimulants, also have very serious and harmful side effects. Antidepressants such as Atomoxetine, Wellbutrin, Strattera and Risperdal are often prescribed to children who did not respond well to stimulant medication (Ryan, Kitsiyannis, Hughes, 2011). Unlike stimulants, antidepressants take longer to be effective (2011). Unfortunately, antidepressants subject children to the risky side effects for a longer period of time as well. These side effects included the same common side effects as stimulants, however they also increased the risks of depression and suicidal ideations. Hammad, Laughren, and Racoosin (2006) conducted a study highlighted in the June 2006 edition of The Journal of Family Practice that concluded â€Å"the use of antidepressant medications in children is associated with an increased risk of suicidal ideation and suicide-related behavior† (p. 488). In fact, Pellow, Solomon, and Bernard (2011) found that Strattera also generated â€Å"psychotic symptoms and suicidal tendencies in children† (p. 327). Parents should weigh the value in antidepressant medication as a means to treat their child’s ADHD against the risk of suicide or other psychotic symptoms. Children with ADHD already struggled to focus. Adding mental and emotional symptoms would exacerbate the problem, rather than alleviate it. In fact, Barnett and Labellarte (2002) noted that â€Å"individuals with unstable personalities, depressive states, and anxiety states may potentially worsen† (p. 193). Ryan, Kitsiyannis, and Hughes (2011) also recognized the dangers in antidepressants, much like Barnett and Labellarte, and cautioned that parents should consider that the  medications carry many adverse side effects, â€Å"ranging from physical symptoms†¦to behavioral changes†¦to severe reactions with the potential of death† (p. 57). These adverse side effects should not be discounted due to their uncommon nature. In doing so, parents are exchanging one disorder for the creation of another. This is not a viable solution in treating children with ADHD as the child would suffer emotionally and physically, though mentally they would be temporarily treated. The third class of ADHD medication is hypertensive medications, such as Clonidine and Guanfacine. Usually prescribed for the treatment of high blood pressure, antihypertensive medications â€Å"have also been shown to help alleviate moderate ADHD-associated impulsive and oppositional behaviors commonly observed in children with ADHD† (Ryan, Kitsiyannis, Hughes, 2011). However, Barnett and Labellarte (2002) found that â€Å"the largest double-blind, placebo-controlled studies of clonidine for ADHD†¦did not show efficacy† (p. 199). In other words, studies showed that the use of antihypertensive medications did not succeed in treating ADHD alone. These medications had to be used in conjunction with other ADHD medications, such as MPH stimulants. Furthermore, though antihypertensive medications shared similar common side effects with stimulants and antidepressants, they also risked sudden unexplained death (SUD) in children with ADHD. â€Å"The use of clonidine plus MPH has generated concern due to reports of SUD in children with ADHD taking the combination† (p. 199). Additionally, Barnett and Labellarte pointed out that there was â€Å"the cardiovascular risk of significant bradycardia associated with clonidine alone† (p. 200). Due to the controversy of the safety of the hypertensive medications in children, parents should reconsider the use of these medications in their child’s ADHD treatment plans. The â€Å"serious cardiovascular AEs such as hypotension and bradycardia as well as rebound tachycardia and hypertension† caused the medications to be black-boxed by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA), which required manufactures list these side effects as a warning on the medication labels (p. 200). Not only are the side effects of ADHD medications risky and harmful, but the long term consequences of the drugs are detrimental to a child’s health as well. There are serious physical ramifications of using certain ADHD medications for an extensive period of time. There were numerous reports of long term cardiovascular problems from pharmacological treatments of ADHD. Nissen (2006) reported that stimulants â€Å"substantially increase the heart rate and blood pressure† (p. 1446). Though Ryan, Kitsiyannis, and Hughes (2011) promoted the short term effectiveness of pharmacological ADHD treatments, Nissen argued that the harmful long term cardiovascular effects outweighed the short term benefits. The risk of heart disease in a developing child should never be overlooked regardless of the circumstance. By using ADHD medications, the child’s short term benefits would ultimately cost him or her a lifetime of cardiovascular health issues. Long term use of ADHD antidepressant medications also increased the risk of long-term psychiatric disorders and brain impairments. Antidepressant medications used to treat ADHD in children work by â€Å"impairing brain functions† (Docksai, 2013, p. 12). After an extended period of use, a child could â€Å"suffer biochemical disruptions and ‘chronic brain impairment’ long after he or she ceases taking it† (p. 13). In fact, any type of psychiatric medication impairs brain function as that is what it is designed to do. Huang and Tsai (2011) discussed a ten year study of children who took ADHD medication for over five years that found â€Å"both male and female young adults with a diagnosis of ADHD in childhood on the medications to be at higher risk of adverse psychiatric outcomes, including antisocial, addictive, mood and anxiety disorders† (p.548). Though parents chose pharmacologic treatments for their child in the hope that it would have improved focus and performance in school, the same medications would actually impair brain function and possible long term brain development. If the short term side effects and long term health risks were not enough to cause a parent to reconsider using ADHD medications, the Multimodal Treatment Study for ADHD (the MTA study) found that there was no conclusive evidence for the long term efficacy of pharmaceutical treatments in children with ADHD. In his review of the MTA study, Kean (2004) concluded that research over the past 30 years has shown that â€Å"treatment with medications does not change learning or behavior outcomes in the long term† (p. 199). It is much like using ADHD medications as a Band-Aid to temporarily cover a much more serious wound. Ingram, Hechtman and Morgenstern (1999) shared Kean’s view and concluded â€Å"to date, there is no evidence that stimulants alter the course of ADHD or improve long term outcomes† (p. 248). Therefore, parents medicated their children with ADHD with only short term success and without a long term solution. Children forced to take ADHD medications endured side effects and risked their emotional well-being and physical health for a treatment plan that did not cure their disorder, but essentially left them to deal with it later on. Despite the lack of positive long term effects of ADHD medications, the MTA study recognized the positive outcomes of alternative treatments and behavior therapies for ADHD. The MTA study included a Summer Treatment Program in which participants were either in the behavior treatment group or the combined treatment group. The behavior treatment group received behavior therapy and the participants did not use ADHD medications. The combined treatment group used a combination of behavior therapy and ADHD medication as part of their treatment plan (Kean, 2004). Though Ingram, Hechtman, and Morgestern (1999) argued that â€Å"multimodal treatment is not a significant improvement over methylphenidate† (p. 248), the MTA study proved otherwise. At the end of the summer, â€Å"of the children in the behavioral group 75% were maintained without medication for 14 months and 64% no longer met the diagnostic criteria for ADHD† (p. 179). Even Ryan, Katsiyannis, and Hughes (2011) conceded that â€Å"medications will not cure ADHD† (p. 53). However, the MTA study showed that, though it may not work with all children with ADHD, behavior therapies and alternative treatment plans did have long term efficacy with no harmful side effects or health risks. The alternative treatments the MTA study found effective included dietary management and complementary and alternative medicine (CAM). The goal of CAM therapies is â€Å"treating patients holistically and individually, and aim to treat underlying etiologies† (Pellow, Solomon, Bernard, 2011, p.328). In a study cited by Pellow, Solomon, and Bernard, 62% of the participants in the MTA study improved their behavior by 50% from dietary management, which proved the effectiveness of dietary management. Additionally, the children who followed the dietary intervention no longer met the DSM-IV criteria for ADHD† (p. 328). The dietary management consisted of organic fruits, vegetables proteins (2011). Foods that are high in sugars, additives, and are overly processed have the opposite effect in children in that they increase hyperactivity in young children. Therefore, the elimination of these products proved beneficial in the management of ADHD. The use of stimulants, antidepressants, and antihypertensive medications to treat ADHD is a double edged sword. On one side they treat short term symptoms of the disorder, most of which have harmful adverse effects associated with the medication. One the other side, there is no conclusive evidence or research that shows that they have long term effectiveness, but they do have harmful long term health risks. If one had a leaky pipe in his walls, he would not put tape over it as a viable solution to the problem. Rather, he would take the necessary steps to repair or replace the pipe to circumvent more extensive damage later on. The same could be said of ADHD medication. They are simply tape on a leaky pipe. If the medications do not resolve the issue in the long run, one should not risk the child’s health as a short term solution. Nonetheless, pediatricians continue to prescribe medications for ADHD as a first line treatment. The MTA study proved that alternative treatments and behavior therapies have short term and long term success, but they are also not harmful to the child’s overall health. Parents should exercise scrutiny in selecting a viable treatment plan for their children with ADHD. CAMs have been proven effective and safe, whereas medicinal treatments have harsh side effects, long term health risks, with no long term efficacy. Considering the findings of the MTA study, parents should reconsider the use of ADHD medications in the treatment of their children with ADHD.

Wednesday, November 27, 2019

The Fire that was Allowed to Burn Essays

The Fire that was Allowed to Burn Essays The Fire that was Allowed to Burn Essay The Fire that was Allowed to Burn Essay Fourteen years ago fire rolled through a beautiful part of this country, filled with marvelous creations such as geysers and hot springs.Trees, blooming wild flowers, abundant grasses, natural landscapes, and sinuous waters lavishly filled the countryside.Almost everything was destroyed that was in the fires sight.398 blameless animals died.Many controversies aroused from the occurrence of this fire at Yellowstone National Park in 1988. These fires were allowed to burn by the Natural Burn Policy which was put into effect in 1972.The National Park Service officially recognized that fire was essential for the maintenance of an ecosystem (Ruhf).When a fire is started, the trees burn down and die.They then fall and create open areas for sunlight to reach new growth and sprout seedlings.This creates a healthier forest and helps maintain an ecosystem.All naturally caused fires, such as those started by lightning, would be allowed to burn without suppression. The fires started on June 2 2, 1988.Originally, they did not pose a threat.Ignited by lightning, they didnt threaten lives, property, or natural features.Eventually, almost the entire park was in flames.The fires, including the Storm Creek fire, the Hellroaring fire, and the North Fork fire then started to burn uncontrollably (Ruhf).By July 22, the National Park Service decided it was time to battle all of these fires.Over a course of about 3 months a total of 25,000 firefighters, including Army and Marine troops, tried to control this blaze.9,500 firefighters fought the fires at one time (Barker). The worst of the fires began on Saturday, August 20, 1988.This day is now historically named Black Saturday (Ruhf).Winds soared between 30-40 MPH with gusts reaching up to 70 MPH (Ruhf).The winds caused the fires to reach up to 200 feet high.Eventually the fires produced their own wind.On Black Saturday an

Saturday, November 23, 2019

In or on - Emphasis

In or on In or on This may be a post mostly for our non-native English speaking readers. When to use in or on at any given moment is something native speakers give little thought to, simply because theyve grown up hearing where these words slot in. But it can be more confusing for those coming to the language later. And its hardly surprising, considering how many definitions these tiny but mighty words can carry. In can be an adverb, noun, adjective or preposition, while on can be an adjective, adverb or preposition. As prepositions alone, they each have over a dozen definitions. Isabel from Natural England wrote in on the subject: In Spanish, both translate as en and I am unsure when to use one or the other in many situations. Is it a matter of learning them by heart or are there any useful rules out there? The answer to that (perhaps unfortunately) lies somewhere in between. But for the most common areas where these two words share territory, this downloadable PDF will be a handy reference. Print it off, stick it on your wall or monitor, and the rules will soon be lodged in your mind. Download In or on

Thursday, November 21, 2019

Book review Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 words - 7

Book review - Essay Example He further jots that for them it is nothing more than history: not all that diverse from the Peloponnesian War. He has channeled this insight into publishing this book that gives a valuable overview, in spite of an individual’s proximity to the Cold War. He outlines three vital lessons of the cold war. First, it was in period of cold war that the military strength stopped to be defining attribute of power itself, which it had been for the past 500 years. Gaddis’ clearest explanation of this phenomenon is the fact: even after the USSR collapsed, it still had its nuclear power and military into place (Gaddis, p14). Gaddis illustrates prior to 1945, great countries fought great wars so often that they tended to be permanent features of the transnational landscape: Lenin even relied or depended on them to give the mechanisms by which capitalism would-self destruct. However, after 1945 wars were limited to those between smaller powers and superpowers, as in vitenam, Korea and Afghanistan or to wars among smaller powers. What never occurred, in spite of world fears that it might, was a full force war involving the Soviet Union, United States and their respective allies. For the first time since timely memorial, no one could be assured of triumph, or surviving a big war. Second, the cold war discouraged dictatorship. Gaddis points out that even though china, the USSR and several states in Europe had authoritarian governments back in 1948 when a well-known book about totalitarian world, 1984, by George Orwell got published, the systems did not extend to the other countries. As 20th century was about to elapse, communism fell out of favor since it failed in delivering its promise of making the workers live better. Third, the cold war period, experienced globalization of democracy, explained by the growing number of democracies as the 20th century was elapsing (Gaddis, p82).

Tuesday, November 19, 2019

Interview Article Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words - 1

Interview - Article Example However, over the years, he had managed to shift from literature research into institution management for the last seven years. The policy maker was also quick to justify and defend stringent policies on use of smart phones by students in class rooms, punitive measures on plagiarism claims and his inclination towards the American degree system. On his defense of the policies on mobile phone usage in classroom, the academician noted that new technologies had transformed the minor sources of distractions into profound cause of alarm for tutors. The prevalence of mobile phone usage in classrooms furthermore amounted to disrespect of tutors in addition to negatively impacting on their teaching morale while every students is busy on their smart phones and tablets. Alternatively, Dr. Lawrence added that the new policy against phone usage was to be guided by disciplinary action. According to this interview, Dr. Lawrence stated that the disciplinary action on mobile phone usage would take two stages, the informal stage and the formal stage. The informal stage entailed warning of student caught using their gadgets in school. Failure to restrain form these offences, the students would be asked to meet the directors of Regent and Webster University for further questioning. These two steps were termed informal since no record of the i ncidences would be registered on students account. On the other hand, the formal stage entailed official disciplinary action by the disciplinary committee of the institution for students who failed to heed their subsequent warnings. Another key issue raised by Dr. Lawrence was the new policies on plagiarism offences. He noted that despite the harshness of the newly formulated policies on plagiarism, it was imperative that students appreciate that the policy aimed at promoting behavior change of students concerning their attitude towards research projects and individual efforts. The newly formulated policies provided the Regent’s students

Sunday, November 17, 2019

Key Causes of Water Scarcity and Researched Solutions Essay Example for Free

Key Causes of Water Scarcity and Researched Solutions Essay 1.0Introduction This report is about the increase in demand for water, and its’ purpose is a twofold, firstly to examine and explore some of the causes of the ever increasing issue of the scarcity of water due to industrial, agricultural and consumer demand in society, and secondly to analyse the solutions of this concern for the Premier of Western Australia, Mr Colin Barnett. This is because water is a valuable resource that is vital for the human race and developing countries such as Australia will be facing an increase in domestic consumption of water by 70 percent in the future (Cashman and Ashley 2008). There were certain limitations surrounding this report, for example the word limit for this report was 1000 words and I was permitted to use a minimum of five scholarly sources and a maximum of seven. The methodology of my research began by using the database: proquest on the Internet, where I found these reliable sources. 2.0Causes of Demand for Water 2.1Industrial Demand Industrial Water Consumption Industries are one of the major key causes of the increased demand for water. Many industries require water to operate and perform the functions that are required to produce the goods or services in question. This is because industries such as oil and mining, are hugely dependable on extreme capacities of water thus, making them susceptible to water shortages (Holbrook 2009). Industries therefore depend on these large amounts of water for production and simultaneously are one of the essential instigators in the ever-increasing problem of water scarcity. In places such as New South Wales, Adelaide and Melbourne where mining operations are carried out, water scarcity is even more extreme. This is because of the material that is being extracted; they are mined in those areas and those areas alone, and therefore the large volume of water that is needed to extract them is adding to the concern of water scarcity. An estimate of water between 100 and 8000 litres are required to obtain one tonne of ore, and to worsen the situation, mining operations cannot be shifted causing water availability to be problematic in those areas (Holbrook 2009). This issue allows an increased strain on the local communities in which mining operations are performed thus causing a concern for the people living in those areas. 2.2Agricultural Demand Population Growth The demand for agriculture is one of the most excessive causes of water scarcity. This is because agriculture needs fresh water in the process of its production. Agriculture consumes the majority of global fresh water, making it one of the most enormous water sources of the increased water demand; the production of food is also rising due to population growth, of about 80 million people per year (Holbrook 2009). According to Irvine and Saulwick (2009), â€Å"Australia is poised to be the worlds fastest growing industrialized nation over the next four decades, with a rate of population growth higher even than India†. Thus with population increasing by a vast number every year, the demand for fresh water will additionally increase, therefore adding to the water scarcity in Australia. 2.3Consumer Demand Economic Growth The development of the economy is another cause of the increased demand for water in the world today. As the population grows, so does the demand for goods and services and therefore results in economic growth which is one of the major causes of water consumption. According to Barbier (2004), the extensive water dilemma is the result of economic development and the rise in population. The production of the increased demand for goods and services require water, and as the need for these goods increase, so will water demand. 3.0Solutions to Water Scarcity 3.1Watershed Improvement in water management is one way to reduce water demand. Water sectors that cross political boundaries amidst a certain watershed come together to meet their needs whilst protecting the ecosystem (Klausner, Mitten and Ingram 2007). 3.2Conservation Techniques In order to protect the earth, freshwater demand has to be decreased and by doing so the majority of freshwater users need to be active in the process of decreasing the chances of water shortages. Therefore by educating users about adequate water preservation techniques, water demand can be decreased. According to Klausner, Mitten and Ingram (2007), by educating farmers about the finest irrigation methods, they can have the opportunity to use water efficiently. Farmers use a vast majority of freshwater and the Australian farmers can be educated about the methods and capital required to conserve water. 3.3Reclaimed Water Reclaimed water is wastewater that has been treated to remove impurities. The substitution of this water can improve the issue of water scarcity. According to Klausner, Mitten and Ingram (2007), countries such as Japan use almost 80% of reclaimed water in their industrial sector. The limited amount of freshwater supplies makes this conservation method more accepted. It is an excellent idea, especially for the south of Australia where there is Mawson Lake and can recycle water. 4.0Conclusion The aim of this report was to outline the causes for the increased demand for water and to provide researched solutions. I provided information on the increased demand for water due to population growth, economic growth and the industrial consumption of water. The damages of water shortage are very dangerous and the consequences are deadly because of ecological and human health issues. Although demand can be reduced by the use of reclaimed water, conservation techniques and watershed methods. In Australia, the methods can be implemented to decreasing water demand for the future. 5.0Recommendations In order to improve water use in Australia, the factors that need to be considered are; water reuse by using reclaimed water to flush toilets, wash clothes and water gardens, educating farmers on water use, by informing them on irrigation techniques and watershed methods. In doing so, water demand in Australia will be reduced in the future if these methods are explored and practiced.